ctys-vhost

November, 2010



.

NAME

ctys-vhost - core address resolution interface and database front-end


SYNTAX


ctys-vhost


   [-c <spent cost on execution environment>
      =:(
        MINCNT|MAXCNT|CNT
      )
   ]
   [-C <DB sources>
      =:(
        OFF
        |CLEARTMP
        |CLEARALL
        |GROUPS
        |KEEPALL
        |LIST
        |LISTCACHE
        |LISTARGETS
        |LISTGROUPS
        |MEMBERSDB
        |MACMAPONLY
        |MACMAP
        |REBUILDCACHE
      )
   ]
   [-d <debug-level>]
   [-h]
   [-H <help-options>]
   [-i <input-list>=[CTYSADDRESS|CTYS]]
   [-I <0-9>]
   [-l <USER>]
   [-M <result-set-output-reduction>
      =:(
        FIRST|LAST|ALL|COMPLEMENT|SORT|USORT|UNIQUE
      )
   ]
   [-o <output-list>
      =:(
         (
           ( 
             [ARCH][,]
             [ACCELERATOR|ACCEL][,]
             [CATEGORY|CAT][,]
             [CONTEXTSTRING|CSTRG][,]
             [CPORT|VNCPORT][,]
             [CTYSADDRESS|CTYS][,]
             [CTYSRELEASE][,]
             [DIST][,]
             [DISTREL][,]
             [EXECLOCATION][,]
             [EXEPATH|EXEP][,]
             [GATEWAY|GW][,]
             [GROUPID|GID][,]
             [HWCAP][,]
             [HWREQ][,]
             [HYPERREL|HYREL][,]
             [HYPERRELRUN|HYRELRUN][,]
             [IDS|ID|I][,]
             [IFNAME][,]
             [INDEX][,]
             [LABEL|L][,]
             [MAC|M][,]
             [NETMASK][,]
             [NETNAME][,]
             [OS|O][,]
             [OSREL][,]
             [PLATFORM|PFORM][,]
             [PM|HOST|H][,]
             [PNAME|P][,]
             [RELAY][,]
             [RELOCCAP][,]
             [SERIALNUMBER|SERNO][,]
             [SERVERACCESS|SPORT|S][,]
             [SSHPORT][,]
             [STACKCAP|SCAP][,]
             [STACKREQ|SREQ][,]
             [TCP|T][,]
             [TYPE|STYPE|ST][,]
             [USERSTRING|USTRG][,]
             [USERID|UID][,]
             [UUID|U][,]
             [VCPU][,]
             [VERSION|VERNO|VER][,]
             [VMSTATE|VSTAT][,]
             [VNCBASE][,]
             [VNCDISPLAY|DISP][,]
             [VRAM][,]
           )
           [TITLE|TITLEIDX|TITLEIDXASC][,]
           [MACHINE|MAXKEY][,]
         )
         | (TAB_GEN|TAB)[:<tab-args>]
         | (REC_GEN|REC)[:<tab-args>]
         | (SPEC_GEN|SPEC)[:<tab-args>]
         | (XML_GEN|XML)[:<tab-args>]
       )[,]
      [IP|DNS|D][,]
      [SORT[:ALL|A|UNIQUE|U|REVERSE|R|EACH
         |[([0-9][0-9][0-9]|[0-9][0-9]|[0-9])]
         [%]][,]
   ]
   [-p <db-directory-path-list>]
   [-r]
   [-s]
   [-S <BasicDataManagementSupport>
      =:(
         CONTENTGROUP
         |LISTALL
         |LIST
         |LISTDB
         |MEMBERSDB
         |LISTGROUP
         |MEMBERSGROUP([2345678])|([678]u)[:<groups-list>]
      )
   ]
   [-T <type-list>]
   [-V]
   [-R <runtime states>
      =:(
        [MARK|(REVERSE|R|-),](PING|SSH)[,(PM|VM)]
      )
   ]
   [-X]
   <awk-regexpr>[ 
     (
       AND
       |E:<#field0>:<#field1>
       |F:<#field>:<string-literal>
       |NOT
       |OR
       |<awk-regexpr>
     )
   ]




DESCRIPTION

ctys-vhost is the basic address resolution interface for runtime execution of commands based on ctys addressing (Address-Resolution) . The main task of this tool is to support a scripting interface for the functional link between VMs and PM, and their contained OS. Even though a considerable amount of functionality is provided, the user interface is designed in a manner for simplified application of the common daily tasks. The basic queries just require actually a few arguments, e.g.

  ctys lab02 tst320

displays by default the record for the VM 'tst320' registed for execution on the PM 'lab03'. The following query

  ctys lab02 tst32

displays on the PM 'lab02' all VMs with the pattern match '*tst32*', whereas

  ctys lab02 tst3.0

displaye the pattern match '*tst3.0*' - where the '.' matches any character. When required a more detailed set of constraints on a query could be applied as required.

The 'ctys-vhost' utility combines functionality of:

The basic similarity to the UNIX 'host' function for name resolution to virtual machines is expanded by several features, which take into account the roaming of VMs and thus changing their actual execution path within a so called 'execution stack' assembled by PMs, VMs, and HOSTs. This implies some dynamic data handling due to frequently changing 'physical containment positions' of roaming VMs. Therefore a basic load-balancing is included, which is currently still a pre-release.

Due to targeted simplicity and efficiency the address resolution is based on a combination of RECORD based and unstructured flat pattern matching by regular expressions only. Even though the record is structured by fields as given by '-a ENUMERATE=MACHINE' , the match itself could be performed quite reliable and performant as a simple regexpr given by an awk-match string expression to be applied to RECORD-STRING, whereas the output is still displayed on the level of records and fields. Combined multiple-regexprs are supported and are iteratively applied on the intermediary results of each step. The set of regular expression could be either combined by AND or OR operators, where AND is the default behaviour. This opens for more complex queries. The behaviour of the operator preference is described in detail within the following ARGUMENTS section. The filtering of the output as requested by the '-o' option is performed on the final set of resulting records only. This could be applied for example, when a table display has to be sorted, where the option '-o SORT:1' sorts the resulting table by the first column. The call with the option '-o sort:1,reverse' results in reverse sorting of the first column.

This simplified pattern matching approach is applicable when the given set of search attributes result in a unique match. When ambiguity occurs due to multiple matching records, the set of records are handled as defined by the '-M' option. Ambiguity occurs frequently when using a reduced set of selection attributes on a database for VMs in a networked environment. This is due to the frequently desired availability of multiple redundant acces targets for the physically identical VM. Either the specification of additional attributes, or the application of load-distribution policies will resolve ambiguity. In current release a basic COST option '-C' extends the '-M' option for some usable load distribution within execution-groups.

In most other cases uniqueness should be given, e.g. the key UUID is defined to be applied as unique, but could be tampered unintentionally e.g. by co-allocated backups. For avoiding of backup-access the '-M first' option might be helpful, when the name of the backup is an extension. The more reliable approach here is to set the VMSTATE to BACKUP and using the VMSTAT filtering attribute for the ENUMERATE action when collecting the inventory data.

The current implementation enables the management of up to multiple thousands of VMs with the given simplicity with single-query resposes in the range of about 0.6-0.8 seconds(measured, but ofcourse depends on machine etc.). One of the next versions will additionally support LDAP based nameservices, targeting an enterprise environment with a number of almost an unlimited amount of distributed services to be managed.

When a mapping table MAC-IPAddress-HostName - here named as 'macmap-DB' - is present this will be used for open mappings which are not configured within the VM configuration files. Particularly any IP or PM/Hostname address for a given MAC-Address is resolved when not present within the enum-DB.

The address resolution is performed by the following steps (ctys-vhost data) :

The following list shows some examples of using ctys-vhost as an interactive query tool.

Additionally to the flat-matching by simple regular expressions some additional keywords are defined. These are AND, OR, NOT, E:, and F:, described within the section related to the ARGUMENTS.

.

OPTIONS

-c <spent cost on execution environment>

Cost as for load distribution when selecting a target. Companion options apply to resulting set of equal cost.

<spent cost on execution environment>=(MINCNT|MAXCNT|CNT)

-C <DB sources>

Limits the generation of the cache DB to the for mapping-resolution to the listed sources. Default is to use all. Only available databases will be used, missing are silently ignored.

Due to some performance issues when repetitively accessing same temporary runtime data, some internal caches are defined. These can be controlled, and reused or cleared by usage of some of the following keywords. But additionally some automatic checks apply. For data from static information, which has to be pre-processed a local cache-DB is created. This cache-DB will be checked for modification time of it's sources before each access and updated when outdated. The modification time of the cache files will be checked additionally for their age. When these exceeds the value defined by CACHECLEARPERIOD, which is by default 3600seconds, the caches are forced-cleared and rebuild silently by next call.

The following data sources are utilized:

ENUM

Enumaration results only, as supplied by cached local"enum.fdb".

MACMAP

DHCP information for MAC resolution, the macmap-DB should be available, but is otherwise simply ignored. This will be utilized in conjunction with an enumeation result, e.g. ENUM.

GROUPS

Adds caching of GROUPS for all group files from the current CTYS_GROUPS_PATH variable. Therefore each group file will be completely expanded by nested evaluation and replacement of "#include" statements and stored by replacing each resulting entry with it's MACHINE format entry from the staticCacheDB.

Each group is cached within an file by it's own, thus the access could be performed by just one file-selection for the complete nested resolution of it's entities.

  
  <DB sources>=
    (
      OFF|
      CLEARTMP|
      CLEARALL|
      GROUPS|
      KEEPALL|
      LIST|
      LISTARGETS|
      LISTGROUPS|
      MEMBERSDB|
      MACMAPONLY|
      MACMAP|
      REBUILDCACHE
    )
  

This group of keywords controls the runtime behaviour, which has an impact to the overall performance.


-d <debug-level>

Same as ctys.


-h

Print help, refer to '-H' for additional information.


-H <help-option>

The extended help option is based on system interfaces for display of manpages, PDF and HTML documents. This comprises the man pages and installed manuals.

For additional help refer to the documents or type ctys -H help.


-i <input-list>

Options controlling input content for specific cases.

  <input-list>=[CTYSADDRESS|CTYS]


-I <0-9>

Interactive, gives summarised display of progress for main values. The degree of display depends on the choosen level:


-l <login-name>

The users, which will be used for hosts without an exlicitly given user. The hosts/groups entries provide the common EMail-Style "<user>@<execution-target>". The default is "$USER", when neither "-l", nor an explicit user is provided.


-L <USER>

Remote user to be used for SSH-access-checks, when the "-x" option is activated.

  DEFAULT=CTYS_NETACCOUNT(DEFAULT->USER)


-M <record-filter>

Restricts a set of multiple results with additional constrains for output:

  <result-set-output-reduction>
     =(FIRST|LAST|ALL|COMPLEMENT|SORT|USORT|UNIQUE)


-o <output-list>

Options controlling output content. Values of all given options are listed as one RECORD per line for each matched entity. The keywords are not case sensitive and could be used as a comma-seperated list. Shortcuts are applicable mostly as one-character alternatives as listed.

The default output when this option is not provided is to display a pre-configured table stored as a MACRO in the default-macros file with the name

  TAB_CTYS_VHOST_DEFAULT

This table could be customized as required, but should be handeled carefully.

  
  <output-list>=
  (
    (
      (
        [ARCH][,]
        [ACCELERATOR|ACCEL][,]
        [CATEGORY|CAT][,]
        [CONTEXTSTRING|CSTRG][,]
        [CPORT|VNCPORT][,]
        [CTYSADDRESS|CTYS][,]
        [CTYSRELEASE][,]
        [DIST][,]
        [DISTREL][,]
        [EXECLOCATION][,]
        [EXEPATH|EXEP][,]
        [GATEWAY|GW][,]
        [GROUPID|GID][,]
        [HWCAP][,]
        [HWREQ][,]
        [HYPERREL|HYREL][,]
        [HYPERRELRUN|HYRELRUN][,]
        [IDS|ID|I][,]
        [IFNAME][,]
        [INDEX][,]
        [LABEL|L][,]
        [MAC|M][,]
        [NETMASK][,]
        [NETNAME][,]
        [OS|O][,]
        [OSREL][,]
        [PLATFORM|PFORM][,]
        [PM|HOST|H][,]
        [PNAME|P][,]
        [RELAY][,]
        [RELOCCAP][,]
        [SERIALNUMBER|SERNO][,]
        [SERVERACCESS|SPORT|S][,]
        [SSHPORT][,]
        [STACKCAP|SCAP][,]
        [STACKREQ|SREQ][,]
        [TCP|T][,]
        [TYPE|STYPE|ST][,]
        [USERSTRING|USTRG][,]
        [USERID|UID][,]
        [UUID|U][,]
        [VCPU][,]
        [VERSION|VERNO|VER][,]
        [VMSTATE|VSTAT][,]
        [VNCBASE][,]
        [VNCDISPLAY|DISP][,]
        [VRAM][,]
      )
      [TITLE|TITLEIDX|TITLEIDXASC][,]
      [MACHINE|MAXKEY][,]
    )
    | TAB_GEN[:<tab-args>]
    | REC_GEN|REC[:<tab-args>]
    | SPEC_GEN|SPEC[:<tab-args>]
    | XML_GEN|XML[:<tab-args>]
  )
  [IP|DNS][,]
  [,SORT[:<sort-args>]]
  


The previous keywords for specific fields set the related bit for output. These will be OR-ed to the resulting output. Thus the MACHINE keyword includes all fields, whether individually set or not.

The format keys IP and DNS change the representation of the IP field.


-p <db-directory-path-list>

Comma seperated path list to directories containing the name-resolution DBs, same for each <db-directory-path> as for ctys-vdbgen.

ctys-vhost could handle multiple mapping-DBs for virtual concatenation. The advantage of this is the ability of substructuring VMs and PMs into access-groups by ctys-vdbgen and using them in combinations as required during runtime. This offers particularly advantages when performing ctys-vhost for loadbalancing by usage of cost-option "-C".


-R <remote-hosts>

List of remote hosts for execution. Either a list of valid hostnames, ipaddresses, or EMail-Format hostnames.


-r

Activates the common usage of dynamic runtime data. Without this option only some distinct functions like load-distribution utilize selective calls of runtime-data-evaluation for further restricting their intermediate results. This is e.g. obviously the count of actual executed instances on a PM for the case of cost evaluation on a potential distribution target.

When runtime data evaluation is activated in general, the "-R" option alplies to any result as a further constraint.

The usage of runtime data evaluation cost performance of course. This could become dominant, when huge clusters are evaluated, thus should be considered whether really required, and applied to reasonable sets only. But anyhow, when some bigger sets are required by definition, caching of data with different strategies could be applied.


-s

Set when ctys-vhost is used as an internal subcall for another master-tool. In this case some automatic triggered tasks such as the time-driven rebuild of caches are suppressed. Instead a hint for required re-sync is printed as warning.

Urgent tasks will be worked out, even if they might take some minutes. This is the case when no cache is present, of the caches differ in their age. All tools using this as an internal system call should set this flag.


-S <BasicDataManagement>

The "-W" option represents some basic management interfaces for the additional entity class GROUPS and the entity characteristics CONTAINMENT. Where the containment is applied to the whole set of stored entities.

These interfaces allow some smart listing and display of current supported data, the handling of data as deletion and creation is handeled by the ctys-vhost command as appropriate.

  
  <BasicManagementSupport>=
     (
       LISTALL
      |LIST
      |LISTDB
      |MEMBERSDB
      |LISTGROUP[:<groups-list>]
      |MEMBERSGROUP([2345678])|([678]u)[:<groups-list>]
     )
  
     <groups-list>:=<group>[,<groups-list>]
  

The following keywords may be applied.


-T <type-list>

Types to be recognized when calculating target. For additional information refer to "-T" option of ctys.


-V

Shows version.


-x <runtime states>

Restricts a set of multiple results with additional constrains for output.

Only the possible targets which are actually operational are listed. This includes the actual running VM with it's hosting PM, and in addition all other operational machines, where the current VM is available too. This case is the most common for NFS based exec-pools, where a single VM could be accessed remotely by a number of PMs. This particularly offers the advantage of copyless-migration of online and offline VMs.

Very handy, and in companion with others probably one of the most important internal top-level-calls for GuestOS-Command-Execution.

  <runtime states>
    =[MARK|(REVERSE|R|-),]PING|SSH[,PM|VM]


-X

See ctys, terse for machine output.

REMARK: Due to order dependency of options evaluation, set this as first/leftmost option.

.

ARGUMENTS

Use "-I 2" option for some performance analysis of order dependency for multiple-selection queries.

<awk-regexpr>[ <awk-regexpr>[ <...>]]
A list of simple awk regular expression, for matching based on $0. This is called here "flat-matching", though no structural information like in case of attribute-value assertion, is recognized for the pattern match.

The given lists are matched each on the resulting set of complete records from the previous pattern-matching. The last filter applied will be accompanied by reduction of fields of final matching records as selected by "-o" option.

The main advance of this approach is the simplicity of data structures and the utilization of common tools and data structures. Some performance gain is another advantage.

The drawback is, that in some cases the regexpr has to be choosen thoroughly. The first is to supress shell-expansion for the chracters to be passed to the internal awk-expression. These might be required in rare cases only, but offer some advantage.

Some Examples:

The next point to be aware of is the order of precedence for the logical operators AND and OR. This is evaluated from left-to-right, the precedence is inverted. This means, that lower precedences are grouped together by virtual braces. This academic sounding remark offers tremendous positive practical impacts. First the theory - as a result the following rules are identical.

  x AND a OR b OR c

is equal to

  a OR b OR c AND x

These could be written as

  x AND a OR x AND b OR x AND c 

Current version does not support braces, but if - the previous could be written as

  x AND ( a OR b OR c )

The next consequence is the repetition of the rules when a higher valued operator AND follows a lower valued group.

  x AND a OR b OR c AND y

This again could be written as

  x AND ( a OR b OR c ) AND y

Or better as

  ( x AND ( a OR b OR c ) ) AND y

This is consequently equal to

  y AND ( x AND ( a OR b OR c ) )

Which could be written as

  y AND x AND ( a OR b OR c )

The main advance of the previous theory is the tremendous simplification and size-reduction of vast powerful and fast scanners. Thus within just a few lines a complete scanner with a recursive logic could be implemented as present within the 'ctys-vhost' command.

The call

  ctys-vhost -o sort:1 \
      tst00  and not  f:2:PM and tst103 or tst00 or tst00

or

  ctys-vhost -o sort:1 \
      not  f:2:PM and tst103 or tst00 or tst00 and tst00

selects the following set

  
  label |styp|accel|dist|distrel|os   |osrel|PM         |if|TCP
  ------+----+-----+----+-------+-----+-----+-----------+--+------------
  tst003|VMW |     |SuSE|9.3    |Linux|2.6  |delphi.soho|0 |172.20.2.133
  tst003|VMW |     |SuSE|9.3    |Linux|2.6  |delphi.soho|0 |172.20.2.133
  tst005|VBOX|HVM  |    |       |Windo|     |lab02.soho |  |
  tst005|VBOX|HVM  |    |       |Windo|     |lab02.soho |  |
  tst005|VBOX|     |    |       |     |     |lab02.soho |  |
  tst005|VBOX|     |    |       |     |     |lab02.soho |  |
  

from a databse with 837 entries.

The actual queries could be visualized for analysis porposes. Therefore the intermediate metadata and the resulting matched records are displayed by the option '-I 2'.

The first call produces the output

  
  time ctys-vhost -I 2 -o sort:1 \
      tst00  and not  f:2:PM and tst103 or tst00 or tst00
  
  START R-Methods
  CHECK             =/homen/acue/.ctys/db/default
  START R/W-Methods
  RM RTCACHE        =/tmp/ctys.acue/ctys-vhost.20101106184019.cdb
  QUERY:cacheDB repetitive:"tst00"
    ....!!!!!X!!!!!!!!.x.........x.........x.........x50
    .........x.........x.........x.........x.........x100
    .........x.........x.........x.........x.........x150
    .........x.........x.........x....!!!!!X!!!!!!!!.x200
    .........x.........x.........x.........x.........x250
    .........x.........x.........x.........x.........x300
    .........x.........x..!!!!!!!X.........x.........x350
    .........x.........x.........x.........x.........x400
    .........x.........x.........x.........x.........x450
    !........x.........x.........x.........x.........x500
    !!!!!!!!!X!!!!!!!!!X!........x.........x.........x550
    .........x.........x.........x.........x.........x600
    .........x.........x.........x.........x.........x650
    .......!!x.........x.........x.........x.........x700
    .........x.........x.........x!........x.........x750
    .........x.........x.........x!!!!!!!..x.........x800
    .........x.........x.........x.....
    match=68 of total=835
  QUERY:cacheDB repetitive:"f:2:PM"
    .........x.........x.........x......!..x.........x50
    ........!X........
    match=3 of total=68
  QUERY:cacheDB repetitive:"tst103"
    ...
    match=0 of total=3
  QUERY:cacheDB repetitive:"tst00"
    !!!
    match=3 of total=3
  QUERY:cacheDB repetitive:""
    !!!
    match=3 of total=3
  QUERY:cacheDB repetitive:"tst00"
    !!!
    match=3 of total=3
  QUERY:cacheDB repetitive:""
    !!!!!!
    match=6 of total=6
  !!!!!!
    match=6 of total=6
  label |styp|accel|dist|distrel|os   |osrel|PM         |if|TCP
  ------+----+-----+----+-------+-----+-----+-----------+--+------------
  tst003|VMW |     |SuSE|9.3    |Linux|2.6  |delphi.soho|0 |172.20.2.133
  tst003|VMW |     |SuSE|9.3    |Linux|2.6  |delphi.soho|0 |172.20.2.133
  tst005|VBOX|HVM  |    |       |Windo|     |lab02.soho |  |
  tst005|VBOX|HVM  |    |       |Windo|     |lab02.soho |  |
  tst005|VBOX|     |    |       |     |     |lab02.soho |  |
  tst005|VBOX|     |    |       |     |     |lab02.soho |  |
  
  real	0m1.176s
  user	0m0.696s
  sys	0m0.532s
  


which requires less steps due to early AND reduction of the metadata. The second call requires much more steps, this is due to the late AND reduction of the metadata, which causes any OR part to be AND checked on the whole initial set.

  
  time ctys-vhost -I 2 -o sort:1 \
     not  f:2:PM and tst103 or tst00 or tst00 and tst00
  
  START R-Methods
  CHECK             =/homen/acue/.ctys/db/default
  START R/W-Methods
  RM RTCACHE        =/tmp/ctys.acue/ctys-vhost.20101106184201.cdb
  QUERY:cacheDB repetitive:"f:2:PM"
    .........x.........x.........x.........x.........x50
    .........x.........x.........x.........x..!!!!!!!X100
    !!!!!!!!!X!!!!!!!!!X!!!!!!!!!X!!!!!!!!!X!!!!!!!!!X150
    !!!!!!!!!X!!!!!!!!!X!!!!!!!!!X!!.......x.........x200
    .........x.........x.........x.........x.........x250
    .........x.........x..!!!!!!!X!!!!!!!!!X!!!!!!!!!X300
    !!!!!!!!!X!!!!!!!..x.........x.........x.........x350
    .........x.........x.........x.........x...!!!!!!X400
    !!!!!!!!!X!!!!!!!!!X!!!!!!!!!X!!!!!!!!!X!!!!!!!!!X450
    !!!!!!!!!X!!!!!!!!!X!!!!!!!!!X!!!!!!!!!X!!.......x500
    .........x.........x.........x.........x.........x550
    .........x.........x.........x.........x.........x600
    .........x.........x.........x.!!!!!!!!X!!!!!!!!!X650
    !!!!!!!!!X!!!!!!!!!X!!!!!!!!!X!!!!!!!!!X!!!!!!!!!X700
    !!!!!!!!!X!!!!!!!!!X!!!!.....x.........x.........x750
    ......!!!X!!!!!!!!!X!!!!!!!!.x.........x.........x800
    .........x.........x.........x.....
    match=349 of total=835
  QUERY:cacheDB repetitive:"tst103"
    .........x.........x.........x.........x.........x50
    .........x.........x.........x.........x.........x100
    .........x.........x.........x.........x.........x150
    .........x.........x.........x.........x...!.....x200
    .........x.........x.........x.........x.........x250
    .........x.........x.........x.........x.........x300
    .........x.........x.........x.........x.........
    match=1 of total=349
  QUERY:cacheDB repetitive:"tst00"
    .........x.........x.........x.........x.........x50
    .........x.........x.........x.........x.........x100
    .........x.........x.........x.........x.........x150
    .........x.........x.........x.........x..!......x200
    .........x.........x.........x.........x.........x250
    .........x!!.......x.........x.........x.........x300
    .........x.........x.........x.........x.........
    match=3 of total=349
  QUERY:cacheDB repetitive:"tst00"
    .........x.........x.........x.........x.........x50
    .........x.........x.........x.........x.........x100
    .........x.........x.........x.........x.........x150
    .........x.........x.........x.........x..!......x200
    .........x.........x.........x.........x.........x250
    .........x!!.......x.........x.........x.........x300
    .........x.........x.........x.........x.........
    match=3 of total=349
  QUERY:cacheDB repetitive:"tst00"
    .!!!!!!
    match=6 of total=7
  QUERY:cacheDB repetitive:""
    !!!!!!
    match=6 of total=6
  !!!!!!
    match=6 of total=6
  label |styp|accel|dist|distrel|os   |osrel|PM         |if|TCP
  ------+----+-----+----+-------+-----+-----+-----------+--+------------
  tst003|VMW |     |SuSE|9.3    |Linux|2.6  |delphi.soho|0 |172.20.2.133
  tst003|VMW |     |SuSE|9.3    |Linux|2.6  |delphi.soho|0 |172.20.2.133
  tst005|VBOX|HVM  |    |       |Windo|     |lab02.soho |  |
  tst005|VBOX|HVM  |    |       |Windo|     |lab02.soho |  |
  tst005|VBOX|     |    |       |     |     |lab02.soho |  |
  tst005|VBOX|     |    |       |     |     |lab02.soho |  |
  
  real	0m1.256s
  user	0m0.836s
  sys	0m0.480s
  


Another effect which could be seen here is the almost equal processing duration, which shows the startup and display overhead as the dominating factor. The times are in the same range for half of the data as shown for 835 entries.

The seemingly double-display is due to the multiple OR in this inverted-precedence semantics, which is resulting in addtional display.

The seemingly double-display is due to the hidden display of the owner, here one is the user 'root.root', the other is 'acue.ldapusers'.

For the following rules and operators the search-and-match strings are case sensitive, the operators are not.

AND
The AND operator is the the same as a simple space-operator(" "), which causes the keyword to be applied as selective filter on the previous intermediate result. The result is matched based on the internal MACHINE format, which might lead to different results than the requested final output format only.

E:<#field0>:<#field1>
Compares two fields given by their canonical numbers. The most important application might be the quer for a specific PM record, where the "netname" has to be matched by "PM", which is the "uname -n" Be aware, that only substrings and equal strings match, for local networks using DNS, the "netname" has an additional point "." at the end, thus order of numbers are significant for a match.

The "$<field0>" is the canonical number as presented by TITLEIDX.

F:<#field0>:<content-match>
Queries for a specific FIELD with provided number to be compared by awk-function "match($<#field0>,<content-match>)". Be aware, that only substrings and equal strings match. The match is checked literally, this means that 'pm' is NOT EQUAL 'PM'.

The "$<field0>" is the canonical number as presented by TITLEIDX.

NOT
The NOT operator replaces the current composite state for the next argument only, operators are skipped. It should be recognized, that the NOT operator replaces only the current state, thus no chained evaluation of previous operators is applied. Anyhow, different operators, which are independant, such as NOT and AND, are superposed.

OR
The OR operator adds to the previous intermediate result a filtered subset of the last "AND-result". This sounds maybe a little strange, but simply said, a number of grouped OR operators just imply a parentheses/brace around all OR-ed elements. The overall operations is simple from-left-to-right.

The reason for omitting group-operators is just simplicity of implementation and grant of a resonable overall performance. When more operators are required, a full set of syntax might be implemented.

.

EXIT-VALUES

0: OK:
Result is valid.

1: NOK:
Erroneous parameters.

2: NOK:
Missing an environment element like files or databases.

7: NOK:
Missing cacheDB directory.

8: NOK:
Missing stat cache.

9: NOK:
Missing groups cache.

10: NOK:
Missing "macmap.fdb"

11: NOK:
Unambiguity was requested by "-M unique", but query result is ambiguous.


SEE ALSO

ctys plugins
PMs
ctys-PM(1)

VMs
KVM(1) , ctys-QEMU(1) , ctys-VBOX(1) , ctys-VMW(1) , ctys-XEN(1)

HOSTS
ctys-CLI(1) , ctys-RDP(1) , ctys-VNC(1) , ctys-X11(1)
ctys executables
ctys-extractARPlst(1) , ctys-extractMAClst(1) , ctys-genmconf(1) , ctys-plugins(1) , ctys-vping(1) , ctys-vdbgen(1)
system executables
dig(1), host(1), ifconfig(8), ether-tool(8), nc(1)<a.k.a. netcat>




AUTHOR

Written and maintained by Arno-Can Uestuensoez:

Maintenance: <<acue_sf1 (a) users sourceforge net>>
Homepage: <http://www.UnifiedSessionsManager.org>
Sourceforge.net: <http://sourceforge.net/projects/ctys>
Berlios.de: <http://ctys.berlios.de>
Commercial: <http://www.i4p.com>




COPYRIGHT

Copyright (C) 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011 Ingenieurbuero Arno-Can Uestuensoez

For BASE package following licenses apply,

This document is part of the DOC package,

For additional information refer to enclosed Releasenotes and License files.